|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$900||Benefits minus costs||$3,396|
|Participants||$1,868||Benefit to cost ratio||$31.60|
|Others||$781||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($41)||benefits greater than the costs||100 %|
|Net program cost||($111)|
|Benefits minus cost||$3,396|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$870||$1,916||$848||$0||$3,635|
|Health care associated with educational attainment||$52||($14)||($57)||$26||$7|
|Costs of higher education||($23)||($34)||($11)||($11)||($79)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($56)||($56)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$111||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2015 dollars)||($111)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Cantrell, S., Fullerton, J., Kane, T.J., & Staiger, D.O. (2008). National board certification and teacher effectiveness: Evidence from a random assignment experiment (Working Paper No. 14608). Cambridge: NBER.
Cavalluzzo, L.C. (2004). Is national board certification an effective signal of teacher quality? Alexandria, VA: The CNA Corporation.
Chingos, M.M., & Peterson, P.E. (2011). It's easier to pick a good teacher than to train one: Familiar and new results on the correlates of teacher effectiveness. Economics of Education Review, 30(3), 449-465
Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., & Vigdor, J.L. (2006). Teacher-student matching and the assessment of teacher effectiveness. The Journal of Human Resources, 41(4), 778-820.
Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., & Vigdor, J.L. (2007). Teacher credentials and student achievement: Longitudinal analysis with student fixed effects. Economics of Education Review, 26(6), 673-682.
Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., & Vigdor, J.L. (2010). Teacher credentials and student achievement in high school: A cross-subject analysis with student fixed effects. Journal of Human Resources, 45(3), 655-681.
Goldhaber, D., & Anthony, E. (2007). Can teacher quality be effectively assessed? National board certification as a signal of effective teaching. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 89(1), 134-150.
Harris, D.N., & Sass, T.R. (2009). The effects of NBPTS-certified teachers on student achievement. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 28(1), 55-80.
Ladd, H.F., Sass, T.R., & Harris, D.N. (2007). The impact of National Board Certified teachers on student achievement in Florida and North Carolina: A summary of the evidence. Prepared for the National Academies Committee on the evaluation of the impact of teacher certification by NBPTS. Unpublished manuscript.
Sanders, W.L., Ashton, J.J., Wright, S.P. (2005). Comparison of the effects of NBPTS certified teachers with other teachers on the rate of student academic progress (Final report). Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED491846)
Stronge, J.H., Ward, T.J., Tucker, P.D., Hindman, J.L., McColsky, W., & Howard, B. (2007). National Board certified teachers and non-national board certified teachers: Is there a difference in teacher effectiveness and student achievement? Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 20(3-4), 185-210.
Vandevoort, L.G., Amrein-Beardsley, A., & Berliner, D.C. (2004). National Board Certified teachers and their students' achievement. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 12(46).