|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,446||Benefits minus costs||($2,763)|
|Participants||$2,018||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.53|
|Others||$808||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,181)||benefits greater than the costs||43 %|
|Net program cost||($5,856)|
|Benefits minus cost||($2,763)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$946||$2,084||$918||$0||$3,948|
|K-12 grade repetition||$88||$0||$0||$43||$130|
|K-12 special education||$1,374||$0||$0||$681||$2,054|
|Health care associated with educational attainment||$88||($24)||($96)||$42||$11|
|Costs of higher education||($49)||($41)||($14)||($24)||($127)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($2,923)||($2,923)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,800||2011||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($5,856)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2011||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|K-12 grade repetition||1||74||-0.103||0.341||8||-0.103||0.341||17||-0.285||0.421|
|K-12 special education||1||85||-0.225||0.256||8||-0.225||0.256||17||-0.626||0.021|
Levenstein, P., O'Hara, J., & Madden, J. (1983). The Mother-Child Home Program of the Verbal Interaction Project. In The Consortium for Longitudinal Studies (Contributors), As the twig is bent . . .: Lasting effects of preschool programs (pp. 237-263). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Levenstein, P., Levenstein, S., Shiminski, J. A., & Stolzberg, J. E. (1998). Long-term impact of a verbal interaction program for at-risk toddlers: An exploratory study of high school outcomes in a replication of the Mother-Child Home Program. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19(2), 267-285.
Madden, J., O'Hara, J., & Levenstein, P. (1984). Home again: Effects of the Mother-Child Home Program on mother and child. Child Development, 55(2), 636-647.
Scarr, S., & McCartney, K. (1988). Far from home: An experimental evaluation of the mother-child home program in Bermuda. Child Development, 59(3), 531-543.