|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,378||Benefits minus costs||$4,547|
|Participants||$2,505||Benefit to cost ratio||$6.45|
|Others||$1,833||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($335)||benefits greater than the costs||76 %|
|Net program cost||($835)|
|Benefits minus cost||$4,547|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$1,223||$2,693||$1,240||$0||$5,156|
|K-12 grade repetition||$5||$0||$0||$3||$8|
|K-12 special education||$2||$0||$0||$1||$3|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$2||$4||$0||$6|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$2||$1||$2||$1||$5|
|Costs of higher education||($126)||($190)||($57)||($62)||($436)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($412)||($412)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$754||2009||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($835)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2009||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||1||153||-0.147||0.184||13||-0.147||0.184||23||-0.387||0.036|
|Alcohol use in high school||1||152||-0.080||0.234||15||-0.080||0.234||25||-0.210||0.359|
|Cannabis use in high school||1||152||-0.332||0.328||15||-0.332||0.328||25||-0.874||0.011|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||2||283||-0.008||0.103||13||-0.004||0.053||16||-0.055||0.741|
|Illicit drug use in high school||1||151||-0.120||0.152||15||-0.120||0.152||25||-0.317||0.038|
|Smoking in high school||1||152||-0.199||0.219||15||-0.199||0.219||25||-0.523||0.019|
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