|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,721||Benefits minus costs||$8,810|
|Participants||$4,906||Benefit to cost ratio||n/a|
|Others||$656||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$362||benefits greater than the costs||82 %|
|Net program cost||$165|
|Benefits minus cost||$8,810|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|K-12 grade repetition||$6||$0||$0||$3||$9|
|K-12 special education||$53||$0||$0||$26||$79|
|Labor market earnings associated with anxiety disorder||$2,165||$4,768||$0||$0||$6,933|
|Health care associated with PTSD||$490||$159||$606||$246||$1,502|
|Costs of higher education||($14)||($22)||($7)||($7)||($50)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||$83||$83|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$886||2009||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||$165|
|Comparison costs||$1,035||2009||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||1||14||-0.512||0.378||11||-0.244||0.221||14||-0.512||0.175|
|Major depressive disorder||2||29||-0.228||0.269||11||0.000||0.029||12||-0.192||0.476|
Ahmad, A., Larsson, B., & Sundelin-Wahlsten, V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: results of a randomized controlled trial. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 6(5), 349-54.
Chemtob, C.M., Nakashima, J., & Carlson, J G. (2002). Brief treatment for elementary school children with disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A field study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 99-112.
Kemp, M., Drummond, P., & McDermott, B. (2010). A wait-list controlled pilot study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from motor vehicle accidents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15(1), 5-25.
Soberman, G.B., Greenwald, R., & Rule, D.M. (2002). A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for boys with conduct problems. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma 6(1), 217-236.