|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$934||Benefits minus costs||$1,039|
|Participants||$1,429||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.79|
|Others||$498||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($500)||benefits greater than the costs||55 %|
|Net program cost||($1,321)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,039|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$183||$402||$185||$0||$769|
|K-12 grade repetition||$4||$0||$0||$2||$6|
|K-12 special education||$75||$0||$0||$38||$113|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$106||$34||$131||$53||$324|
|Costs of higher education||($19)||($28)||($8)||($9)||($64)|
|From secondary participant|
|Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$445||$980||$0||$9||$1,434|
|Health care associated with major depression||$124||$40||$153||$62||$379|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($662)||($662)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,215||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($1,321)|
|Comparison costs||$881||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms||Primary||1||50||-0.220||0.234||6||-0.001||0.015||7||-0.595||0.013|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||Primary||17||1280||-0.126||0.047||6||-0.060||0.035||9||-0.452||0.001|
|Major depressive disorder||Secondary||4||210||-0.094||0.160||26||-0.049||0.195||27||-0.094||0.557|
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