|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$4,999||Benefits minus costs||$9,185|
|Participants||($72)||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.85|
|Others||$17,923||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,899)||benefits greater than the costs||70 %|
|Net program cost||($10,766)|
|Benefits minus cost||$9,185|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|K-12 grade repetition||$2||$0||$0||$1||$3|
|Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$2||$4||$0||$1||$7|
|Health care associated with major depression||$5||$2||$6||$2||$15|
|Costs of higher education||($51)||($77)||($23)||($26)||($178)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($5,416)||($5,416)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$31,883||2007||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($10,766)|
|Comparison costs||$25,226||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms^^||1||20||-0.232||0.343||17||-0.111||0.183||20||-0.627||0.073|
|Major depressive disorder||1||81||-0.140||0.155||17||0.000||0.017||18||-0.378||0.016|
|Psychosis symptoms (positive)^||1||75||-0.135||0.162||17||-0.100||0.346||18||-0.365||0.091|
|Teen pregnancy (under age 18)^||1||78||-0.199||0.212||17||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.538||0.004|
Biehal, N., Ellison, S., & Sinclair, I. (2012). Intensive fostering: an independent evaluation of MTFC in an English setting. Adoption & Fostering, 36(1), 13-26.
Chamberlain, P. (1990). Comparative evaluation of specialized foster care for seriously delinquent youths: A first step. Community Alternatives: International Journal of Family Care, 2(2), 21-36.
Eddy, J.M., Whaley, B., & Chamberlain, P. (2004). The prevention of violent behavior by chronic and serious male juvenile offenders: A 2-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12(1), 2-8.
Kerr, D.C., DeGarmo, D.S., Leve, L.D., & Chamberlain, P. (2014). Juvenile justice girls’ depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation 9 years after multidimensional treatment foster care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(4), 684-693.
Kerr, D.C., Leve, L.D., & Chamberlain, P. (2009). Pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls in two randomized controlled trials of multidimensional treatment foster care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(3), 588-593.
Martin, B., & Lotta, H. (2016). Is multidimensional treatment foster care (MTFC) more effective than treatment as usual in a three-year follow-up? Results from MTFC in a Swedish setting. European Journal of Social Work, 19(2), 219-235.
Poulton, R., Van, R. M.J., Harold, G.T., Chamberlain, P., Fowler, D., Cannon, M., Arseneault, L., & Leve, L.D. (2014). Effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care on Psychotic Symptoms in Girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(12), 1279-1287.
Smith, D.K., Chamberlain, P., & Deblinger, E. (2012). Adapting Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for the treatment of co-occurring trauma and delinquency in adolescent girls. Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma, 5(3), 224-238.
Smith, D.K., Chamberlain, P., & Eddy, J.M. (2010). Preliminary support for Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care in reducing substance use in delinquent boys. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 19(4), 343-358.
Rhoades, K.A., Leve, L.D., Harold, G.T., Kim, H.K., & Chamberlain, P. (2014). Drug use trajectories after a randomized controlled trial of MTFC: Associations with partner drug use. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24(1), 40-54.
Van Ryzin, M.J., & Leve, L.D. (2012). Affiliation with delinquent peers as a mediator of the effects of multidimensional treatment foster care for delinquent girls. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(4), 588-96.
Westermark, P.K., Hansson, K., & Olsson, M. (2011). Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC): Results from an independent replication. Journal of Family Therapy, 33(1), 20-41.