|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$4,575||Benefits minus costs||$9,054|
|Participants||$881||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.08|
|Others||$14,092||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,116)||benefits greater than the costs||62 %|
|Net program cost||($8,379)|
|Benefits minus cost||$9,054|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$420||$924||$430||$0||$1,774|
|K-12 grade repetition||$22||$0||$0||$11||$33|
|K-12 special education||$94||$0||$0||$47||$142|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$1||$2||$0||$3|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$72||$23||$89||$36||$221|
|Costs of higher education||($45)||($68)||($20)||($23)||($156)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($4,202)||($4,202)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$31,883||2007||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($8,379)|
|Comparison costs||$24,536||2007||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use in high school||1||32||-0.045||0.240||17||-0.045||0.240||19||-0.126||0.601|
|Cannabis use in high school||1||32||-0.083||0.240||17||-0.083||0.240||19||-0.230||0.340|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||1||20||-0.627||0.350||17||-0.299||0.221||20||-0.627||0.073|
|Illicit drug use in high school||1||32||-0.094||0.240||17||-0.094||0.240||19||-0.261||0.279|
|Smoking in high school||1||32||-0.068||0.240||17||-0.068||0.240||19||-0.190||0.429|
|Teen pregnancy (under age 18)^||1||81||-0.538||0.187||16||-0.538||0.187||18||-0.538||0.004|
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