|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,873||Benefits minus costs||$4,654|
|Participants||$3,260||Benefit to cost ratio||$6.45|
|Others||$571||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($196)||benefits greater than the costs||100 %|
|Net program cost||($854)|
|Benefits minus cost||$4,654|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with PTSD||$1,412||$3,109||$0||$0||$4,522|
|Health care associated with PTSD||$461||$150||$571||$229||$1,411|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($425)||($425)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$772||2008||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($854)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2008||Cost range (+ or -)||15 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Major depressive disorder||6||232||-0.192||0.099||38||-0.100||0.121||39||-0.356||0.002|
Blanchard, E.B., Hickling, E.J., Devineni, T., Veazey, C.H., Galovski, T.E., & Mundy, E. (2003). A controlled evaluation of cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress in motor vehicle accident survivors. Behavior Research and Therapy, 41(1): 79-96.
Bryant, R.A., Moulds, M.L., Guthrie, R.M., & Nixon, R.D.V. (2005). The additive benefit of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy in treating acute stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(2), 334-340.
Bryant, R.A., Harvey, A.G., Dang, S.T., Sackville, T., & Basten, C. (1998). Treatment of acute stress disorder: A comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy and supportive counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 862-866.
Bryant, R.A., Mastrodomenico, J., Felmingham, K.L., Hopwood, S., Kenny, L., Kandris, E., . . . Creamer, M. (2008). Treatment of acute stress disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(6), 659-667.
Davis, J.L., Rhudy, J.L., Pruiksma, K.E., Byrd, P., Williams, A.E., McCabe, K.M., & Bartley, E.J. ( 2011). Physiological predictors of response to exposure, relaxation, and rescripting therapy for chronic nightmares in a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(6), 622-631.
Davis, J.L., & Wright, D.C. (2007). Randomized clinical trial for treatment of chronic nightmares in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(2), 123-33.
Ford, J.D., Steinberg, K.L., & Zhang, W. (2011). A randomized clinical trial comparing affect regulation and social problem-solving psychotherapies for mothers with victimization-related PTSD. Behavior Therapy, 42(4), 560-578.
Shalev, A.Y., Ankri, Y., Israeli-Shalev, Y., Peleg, T., Adessky, R., & Freedman, S. (2012). Prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder by early treatment: results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach And Prevention study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(2), 166-76.
Sijbrandij, M., Olff, M., Reitsma, J.B., Carlier, I.V.E., de, V.M.H., & Gersons, B.P.R. (2007). Treatment of Acute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder With Brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(1), 82-90.