|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,730||Benefits minus costs||$12,612|
|Participants||$7,735||Benefit to cost ratio||$9.82|
|Others||$3,228||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($650)||benefits greater than the costs||96 %|
|Net program cost||($1,430)|
|Benefits minus cost||$12,612|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$3,602||$7,933||$3,509||$0||$15,044|
|Health care associated with educational attainment||$219||($60)||($239)||$109||$30|
|Costs of higher education||($92)||($138)||($43)||($46)||($319)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($713)||($713)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,406||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2015 dollars)||($1,430)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Fien, H., Santoro, L., Baker, S.K., Park, Y., Chard, D. J., Williams, S., & Haria, P. (2011). Enhancing teacher read alouds with small-group vocabulary instruction for students with low vocabulary in first-grade classrooms. School Psychology Review, 40(2), 307-318.
Kerins, M.R., Trotter, D., & Schoenbrodt, L. (2010). Effects of a tier 2 intervention on literacy measures: Lessons learned. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 26(3), 287-302.
Lennon, J.E., & Slesinski, C. (1999). Early intervention in reading: Results of a screening and intervention program for kindergarten students. School Psychology Review, 28(3), 353-364.
Mathes, P.G., Denton, C., Anthony, J., Francis, D., & Schatschneider, C. (2005). The effects of theoretically different instruction and student characteristics on the skills of struggling readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 40(2), 148-182.
Pinnell, G.S., Lyons, C. A., DeFord, D.E., Bryk, A.S., & Seltzer, M. (1994). Comparing instructional models for the literacy education of high-risk first graders. Reading Research Quarterly, 29(1), 9-39.
Ransford-Kaldon, C.R., Flynt, E.S., Ross, C.L., Franceschini, L., Zoblotsky, T., Huang, Y., & Gallagher, B. (2010). Implementation of effective intervention: An empirical study to evaluate the efficacy of Fountas & Pinnell's Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) 2009-2010. Memphis, TN: University of Memphis, Center for Research in Education Policy.
Rashotte, C.A., MacPhee, K., & Torgesen, J.K. (2001). The effectiveness of a group reading instruction program with poor readers in multiple grades. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24(2), 119-134.
Rolfhus, E., Gersten, R., Clarke, B., Decker, L.E., Wilkins, C., & Dimino, J. (2012). An Evaluation of Number Rockets: A tier-2 intervention for grade 1 students at risk for difficulties in mathematics Final Report (NCEE 2012-4007). Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute for Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R.K., Rashotte, C.A., Herron, J., & Lindamood, P. (2010). Computer-assisted instruction to prevent early reading difficulties in students at risk for dyslexia: Outcomes from two instructional approaches. Annals of Dyslexia, 60(1), 40-56.
Torgeson, J., Schirm, A., Castner, L., Vartivarian, S., Mansfield, W., Myers, D. … Haan, C. (2007). National assessment of Title I final report: Volume II: Closing the reading gap: Findings from a randomized trial of four reading interventions for striving readers (NCEE 2008-4013). Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.