|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$257||Benefits minus costs||$845|
|Participants||$534||Benefit to cost ratio||$8.19|
|Others||$227||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($55)||benefits greater than the costs||57 %|
|Net program cost||($118)|
|Benefits minus cost||$845|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$249||$548||$246||$0||$1,043|
|Health care associated with educational attainment||$15||($4)||($16)||$7||$2|
|Costs of higher education||($7)||($10)||($3)||($3)||($23)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($59)||($59)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$114||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($118)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
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Kim, J.S., & White, T.G. (2008). Scaffolding voluntary summer reading for children in grades 3 to 5: An experimental study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 12(1), 1-23.
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