|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,434||Benefits minus costs||$4,824|
|Participants||$967||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.62|
|Others||$10,688||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,434)||benefits greater than the costs||73 %|
|Net program cost||($7,830)|
|Benefits minus cost||$4,824|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$468||$1,030||$472||$0||$1,970|
|K-12 grade repetition||$9||$0||$0||$4||$13|
|K-12 special education||$95||$0||$0||$48||$143|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$72||$23||$89||$36||$220|
|Costs of higher education||($57)||($86)||($26)||($29)||($198)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($3,930)||($3,930)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$7,076||2008||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($7,830)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2008||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||15||1||147||-0.529||0.129||17||-0.252||0.125||20||-0.529||0.001|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||15||1||147||-0.405||0.128||17||-0.193||0.105||20||-0.405||0.002|
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