|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$8,567||Benefits minus costs||$26,747|
|Participants||$14,220||Benefit to cost ratio||$23.58|
|Others||$5,112||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$32||benefits greater than the costs||73 %|
|Net program cost||($1,184)|
|Benefits minus cost||$26,747|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$8,560||$18,850||$8,638||$0||$36,048|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||($1,237)||($2,723)||($1,212)||$0||($5,172)|
|Health care associated with educational attainment||$2,020||($553)||($2,208)||$1,007||$267|
|Costs of higher education||($899)||($1,354)||($405)||($447)||($3,106)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($589)||($589)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$987||2005||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($1,184)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2005||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Grade point average^||5||2009||0.024||0.032||14||0.024||0.032||14||0.026||0.409|
|High school graduation||1||66||0.262||0.265||18||0.262||0.265||18||0.689||0.029|
|Illicit drug use before end of middle school||1||531||0.109||0.145||14||0.109||0.145||14||0.109||0.321|
|Office discipline referrals^||2||547||-0.256||0.123||14||-0.256||0.123||14||-0.509||0.137|
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