|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$410||Benefits minus costs||$1,607|
|Participants||$618||Benefit to cost ratio||$17.25|
|Others||$670||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$8||benefits greater than the costs||66 %|
|Net program cost||($99)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,607|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$450||$991||$456||$0||$1,898|
|K-12 grade repetition||$1||$0||$0||$0||$1|
|Health care associated with smoking||$161||$52||$199||$80||$492|
|Labor market earnings associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||($161)||($355)||$0||($3)||($519)|
|Health care associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||($16)||($3)||($15)||($8)||($43)|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||($1)||($1)||$0||($2)|
|Costs of higher education||($48)||($72)||($22)||($24)||($165)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$31||$4||$72||($34)||$73|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$34||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2015 dollars)||($99)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Smoking before end of middle school||8||3617||-0.028||0.033||14||-0.028||0.033||15||-0.083||0.012|
|Cannabis use before end of middle school||4||3056||-0.014||0.033||14||-0.014||0.033||15||-0.041||0.217|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||5||3150||-0.026||0.033||14||-0.026||0.033||15||-0.080||0.017|
|Alcohol use in high school||3||280||0.034||0.074||18||0.034||0.074||28||0.028||0.702|
|Smoking in high school||4||359||-0.076||0.073||18||-0.076||0.073||28||-0.128||0.129|
|Cannabis use in high school||3||280||0.000||0.077||18||0.000||0.077||28||-0.007||0.398|
|Youth binge drinking||2||1947||-0.059||0.116||15||-0.059||0.116||25||-0.241||0.421|
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