|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$238||Benefits minus costs||$668|
|Participants||$400||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.51|
|Others||$291||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($70)||benefits greater than the costs||73 %|
|Net program cost||($191)|
|Benefits minus cost||$668|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$187||$413||$190||$0||$790|
|Health care associated with smoking||$51||$17||$63||$25||$156|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$1||$1||$0||$1|
|Costs of higher education||($20)||($30)||($9)||($10)||($68)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($95)||($95)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$64||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($191)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||12||3||4057||-0.034||0.021||12||-0.034||0.021||15||-0.094||0.001|
|Cannabis use before end of middle school||12||1||951||-0.033||0.100||12||-0.033||0.100||15||-0.099||0.336|
|Smoking before end of middle school||12||1||951||-0.059||0.061||12||-0.059||0.061||15||-0.179||0.004|
|Youth binge drinking||12||1||1401||-0.025||0.037||12||-0.025||0.037||22||-0.076||0.039|
Komro, K.A., Perry, C.L., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Farbakhsh, K., Toomey, T.L., Stigler, M.H., Jones-Webb, R., . . . Williams, C.L. ( 2008). Outcomes from a randomized controlled trial of a multi-component alcohol use preventive intervention for urban youth: Project Northland Chicago. Addiction, 103(4), 606-618.
Perry, C.L. et al. (1996). Project Northland: Outcomes of a communitywide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 86(7), 956-965.
Perry, C.L., Williams, C.L., Komro, K.A., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Stigler, M.H., Munson, K.A., et al. (2002). Project Northland: Long-term outcomes of community action to reduce adolescent alcohol use. Health Education Research, 17(1), 117-132.
West, B., Abatemarco, D., Ohman-Strickland, P.A., Zec, V., Russo, A., & Milic, R. (2008). Project Northland in Croatia: results and lessons learned. Journal of Drug Education, 38(1), 55-70.