|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$8,539||Benefits minus costs||$36,737|
|Participants||$1,428||Benefit to cost ratio||$11.59|
|Others||$28,066||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$2,172||benefits greater than the costs||96 %|
|Net program cost||($3,469)|
|Benefits minus cost||$36,737|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$725||$1,596||$736||$0||$3,056|
|Health care associated with educational attainment||$173||($47)||($189)||$87||$23|
|Costs of higher education||($80)||($120)||($36)||($40)||($275)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,730)||($1,730)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$3,134||2008||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($3,469)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2008||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use disorder^^||15||1||30||-0.160||0.259||15||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.160||0.538|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms^^||15||1||40||0.040||0.221||15||n/a||n/a||n/a||0.040||0.855|
|Illicit drug use disorder^^||15||1||30||-0.793||0.268||15||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.793||0.003|
|Major depressive disorder^^||15||1||40||-0.251||0.222||15||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.251||0.258|
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