|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$8,539||Benefits minus costs||$36,737|
|Participants||$1,428||Benefit to cost ratio||$11.59|
|Others||$28,066||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$2,172||benefits greater than the costs||96 %|
|Net program cost||($3,469)|
|Benefits minus cost||$36,737|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$725||$1,596||$736||$0||$3,056|
|Health care associated with educational attainment||$173||($47)||($189)||$87||$23|
|Costs of higher education||($80)||($120)||($36)||($40)||($275)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,730)||($1,730)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$3,134||2008||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($3,469)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2008||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment Age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use disorder^^||15||1||30||-0.160||0.259||15||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.160||0.538|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms^^||15||1||40||0.040||0.221||15||n/a||n/a||n/a||0.040||0.855|
|Illicit drug use disorder^^||15||1||30||-0.793||0.268||15||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.793||0.003|
|Major depressive disorder^^||15||1||40||-0.251||0.222||15||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.251||0.258|
Alexander, J.F., & Parsons, B.V. (1973). Short-term behavioral intervention with delinquent families: Impact on family process and recidivism. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 81(3), 219-225.
Barnoski, R. (2004). Outcome evaluation of Washington State's research-based programs for juvenile offenders (Document No. 04-01-1201). Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.
Barton, C., Alexander, J.F., Waldron, H., Turner, C W., & Warburton, J. (1985). Generalizing treatment effects of functional family therapy: Three replications. American Journal of Family Therapy, 13(3), 16-26.
Erickson, C.J. (2008). The effectiveness of functional family therapy in the treatment of juvenile sexual offenders. Dissertation Abstracts International, 69-10(B), 6409.
Gordon, D.A. (1995). Functional Family Therapy for delinquents. In R. R. Ross, D. H. Antonowicz, & G. K. Dhaliwal (Eds.), Going straight: Effective delinquency prevention & offender rehabilitation (pp. 163-178). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: AIR Training Publications.
Hannson, K. (1998). Functional Family Therapy Replication in Sweden: Treatment Outcome with Juvenile Delinquents. Paper presented to the Eighth International Conference on treating addictive behaviors. Santa Fe, NM, February 1998, as reported in: Alexander, J., Barton, C., Gordon, D., Grotpeter, J., Hansson, K., Harrison, R., Mears, S., Mihalic, S., Parsons, B., Pugh, C., Schulman, S., Waldron, H., and Sexton, T. (1998). Blueprints for Violence Prevention, Book Three: Functional Family Therapy. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.
Humayun, S., Herlitz, L., Chesnokov, M., Doolan, M., Landau, S., & Scott, S. (2017). Randomized controlled trial of Functional Family Therapy for offending and antisocial behavior in UK youth. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 5.
Lantz, B.L. (1982). Preventing adolescent placement through Functional Family Therapy and tracking. Utah Department of Social Services, West Valley Social Services, District 2K, Kearns, UT 84118. As reported in: Alexander, J., Barton, C., Gordon, D., Grotpeter, J., Hansson, K., Harrison, R., Mears, S., Mihalic, S., Parsons, B., Pugh, C., Schulman, S., Waldron, H., and Sexton, T. (1998). Blueprints for Violence Prevention, Book Three: Functional Family Therapy. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.
Peterson, A. (2017). Functional Family Therapy in a probation setting: outcomes for youths starting treatment January 2010 - September 2012. Olympia, WA: Center for Court Research, Administrative Office of the Courts.
Slesnick, N., & Prestopnik, J.L. (2009). Comparison of family therapy outcome with alcohol-abusing, runaway adolescents. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 35(3), 255-277.
Waldron, H.B., Slesnick, N., Brody, J.L., Turner, C.W., & Peterson, T.R. (2001). Treatment outcomes for adolescent substance abuse at 4- and 7-month assessments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(5), 802-813.