|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||($153)||Benefits minus costs||($335)|
|Participants||($230)||Benefit to cost ratio||($5.19)|
|Others||$106||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($5)||benefits greater than the costs||49 %|
|Net program cost||($54)|
|Benefits minus cost||($335)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$135||$297||$136||$54||$621|
|Health care associated with smoking||$37||$12||$46||$19||$114|
|Labor market earnings associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||($233)||($512)||$0||($4)||($749)|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$1||$2||$0||$3|
|Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||($88)||($15)||($79)||($44)||($225)|
|Costs of higher education||($14)||($21)||($7)||($7)||($49)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||($4)||$9||($24)||($29)||($48)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$54||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2015 dollars)||($54)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Smoking before end of middle school||6||6304||-0.044||0.037||12||-0.044||0.037||12||-0.044||0.237|
|Cannabis use before end of middle school||1||341||-0.048||0.114||12||-0.048||0.114||12||-0.048||0.672|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||6||6304||-0.065||0.058||12||-0.065||0.058||12||-0.065||0.267|
|Alcohol use in high school||1||248||0.052||0.120||15||0.052||0.120||15||0.052||0.664|
|Smoking in high school||1||248||0.014||0.120||15||0.014||0.120||15||0.014||0.910|
|Illicit drug use in high school||1||248||0.038||0.120||15||0.038||0.120||15||0.038||0.749|
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