Washington State Institute for Public Policy
Behavioral interventions to reduce obesity for children: Moderate- to high-intensity, face-to-face programs
Health Care: Obesity and Diabetes
Benefit-cost estimates updated May 2017.  Literature review updated December 2014.
The behavioral interventions included in this analysis target obese and overweight youth under age 18, providing them with counseling, education, and other supports to improve diet, increase physical activity, and reduce weight. The programs use techniques designed to promote and sustain behavioral changes, including goal setting, self-monitoring, stimulus control, and other strategies.

The programs in this specific category provided at least 25 hours of face-to-face intervention.
The estimates shown are present value, life cycle benefits and costs. All dollars are expressed in the base year chosen for this analysis (2016). The chance the benefits exceed the costs are derived from a Monte Carlo risk analysis. The details on this, as well as the economic discount rates and other relevant parameters are described in our Technical Documentation.
Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant
Benefits to:
Taxpayers $35 Benefits minus costs ($306)
Participants $19 Benefit to cost ratio $0.08
Others $72 Chance the program will produce
Indirect ($99) benefits greater than the costs 46 %
Total benefits $27
Net program cost ($333)
Benefits minus cost ($306)
1In addition to the outcomes measured in the meta-analysis table, WSIPP measures benefits and costs estimated from other outcomes associated with those reported in the evaluation literature. For example, empirical research demonstrates that high school graduation leads to reduced crime. These associated measures provide a more complete picture of the detailed costs and benefits of the program.

2“Others” includes benefits to people other than taxpayers and participants. Depending on the program, it could include reductions in crime victimization, the economic benefits from a more educated workforce, and the benefits from employer-paid health insurance.

3“Indirect benefits” includes estimates of the net changes in the value of a statistical life and net changes in the deadweight costs of taxation.
Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant
Benefits from changes to:1 Benefits to:
Taxpayers Participants Others2 Indirect3 Total
Labor market earnings associated with obesity $2 $5 $0 $50 $56
Health care associated with obesity $33 $15 $72 $16 $136
Adjustment for deadweight cost of program $0 $0 $0 ($165) ($165)
Totals $35 $19 $72 ($99) $27
Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant
Annual cost Year dollars Summary
Program costs $328 2014 Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars) ($333)
Comparison costs $0 2014 Cost range (+ or -) 25 %
On average, these programs provide approximately 48 contact hours over six months, including both group and individual sessions. The average per-participant cost of these programs was computed using contact hours and average Washington State 2014 hourly wages of the appropriate professionals who conducted the intervention (generally dietitians, nurses, general practitioners, or therapists).
The figures shown are estimates of the costs to implement programs in Washington. The comparison group costs reflect either no treatment or treatment as usual, depending on how effect sizes were calculated in the meta-analysis. The cost range reported above reflects potential variation or uncertainty in the cost estimate; more detail can be found in our Technical Documentation.
Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)
The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Meta-analysis is a statistical method to combine the results from separate studies on a program, policy, or topic in order to estimate its effect on an outcome. WSIPP systematically evaluates all credible evaluations we can locate on each topic. The outcomes measured are the types of program impacts that were measured in the research literature (for example, crime or educational attainment). Treatment N represents the total number of individuals or units in the treatment group across the included studies.

An effect size (ES) is a standard metric that summarizes the degree to which a program or policy affects a measured outcome. If the effect size is positive, the outcome increases. If the effect size is negative, the outcome decreases.

Adjusted effect sizes are used to calculate the benefits from our benefit cost model. WSIPP may adjust effect sizes based on methodological characteristics of the study. For example, we may adjust effect sizes when a study has a weak research design or when the program developer is involved in the research. The magnitude of these adjustments varies depending on the topic area.

WSIPP may also adjust the second ES measurement. Research shows the magnitude of some effect sizes decrease over time. For those effect sizes, we estimate outcome-based adjustments which we apply between the first time ES is estimated and the second time ES is estimated. We also report the unadjusted effect size to show the effect sizes before any adjustments have been made. More details about these adjustments can be found in our Technical Documentation.

Meta-Analysis of Program Effects
Outcomes measured Primary or secondary participant No. of effect sizes Treatment N Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)
First time ES is estimated Second time ES is estimated
ES SE Age ES SE Age ES p-value
Obesity 14 638 -0.378 0.087 12 0.000 0.101 14 -0.378 0.001
Weight change 11 493 -0.206 0.070 12 0.000 0.070 14 -0.206 0.003
Citations Used in the Meta-Analysis

Bocca, G., Corpeleijn, E., Stolk, R.P., & Sauer, P.J. (2012). Results of a multidisciplinary treatment program in 3-year-old to 5-year-old overweight or obese children: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 166(12), 1109-15.

Davis, J. N., Tung, A., Chak, S. S., Ventura, E. E., Byrd-Williams, C. E., Alexander, K. E. et al. (2009). Aerobic and strength training reduces adiposity in overweight latina adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41, 1494-1503.

DeBar, L.L., Stevens, V.J., Perrin, N., Wu, P., Pearson, J., Yarborough, B.J., Dickerson, J., & Lynch, F. (2012). A primary care-based, multicomponent lifestyle intervention for overweight adolescent females. Pediatrics, 129(3), 611-20.

Díaz, R.G., Esparza-Romero, J., Moya-Camarena, S.Y., Robles-Sardín, A.E., & Valencia, M.E. (2010). Lifestyle intervention in primary care settings improves obesity parameters among Mexican youth. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110(2), 285-90.

Ford, A.L., Bergh, C., Södersten, P., Sabin, M.A., Hollinghurst, S., Hunt, L.P., & Shield, J.P. (2010). Treatment of childhood obesity by retraining eating behaviour: A randomised controlled trial. BMJ, doi: 10.1136/bmjb5388..

Israel, A.C., Stolmaker, L., & Andrian, C.A.G. (1985). The effects of training parents in general child management skills on a behavioral weight loss program for children. Behavior Therapy, 16(2), 169-180.

Janicke, D.M., Sallinen, B.J., Perri, M.G., Lutes, L.D., Huerta, M., Silverstein, J.H., & Brumback, B. (2008). Comparison of parent-only vs family-based interventions for overweight children in underserved rural settings: outcomes from project STORY. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(12), 1119-1125.

Kalarchian, M.A., Levine, M.D., Arslanian, S.A., Ewing, L.J., Houck, P.R., Cheng, Y., Ringham, R.M., ... Marcus, M.D. (2009). Family-based treatment of severe pediatric obesity: randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics, 124(4), 1060-1068.

Kalavainen, M.P., Korppi, M.O., & Nuutinen, O.M. (2007). Clinical efficacy of group-based treatment for childhood obesity compared with routinely given individual counseling. International Journal of Obesity, 31(10), 1500-8.

Nemet, D., Barkan, S., Epstein, Y., Friedland, O., Kowen, G., & Eliakim, A. (2005). Short- and long-term beneficial effects of a combined dietary-behavioral-physical activity intervention for the treatment of childhood obesity. Pediatrics, 115(4), 443-9.

Nemet, D., Barzilay-Teeni, N., & Eliakim, A. (2008). Treatment of childhood obesity in obese families. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, 21(5), 461-7.

Reinehr, T., Schaefer, A., Winkel, K., Finne, E., Toschke, A.M., & Kolip, P. (2010). An effective lifestyle intervention in overweight children: findings from a randomized controlled trial on "Obeldicks light." Clinical Nutrition, 29(3), 331-6.

Rocchini, A.P., Katch, V., Anderson, J., Hinderliter, J., Becque, D., Martin, M., & Marks, C. (1988). Blood pressure in obese adolescents: effect of weight loss. Pediatrics, 82(1), 16-23.

Sacher, P.M., Kolotourou, M., Chadwick, P.M., Cole, T.J., Lawson, M.S., Lucas, A. et al. (2010). Randomized controlled trial of the MEND program: A family-based community intervention for childhood obesity. Obesity, 18, S62-S68.

Savoye, M., Shaw, M., Dziura, J., Tamborlane, W.V., Rose, P., Guandalini, C., Goldberg-Gell, R., ... Caprio, S. (2007). Effects of a weight management program on body composition and metabolic parameters in overweight children: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(24), 2697-2704.

Weigel, C., Kokocinski, K., Lederer, P., Dötsch, J., Rascher, W., & Knerr, I. (2008). Childhood obesity: Concept, feasibility, and interim results of a local group-based, long-term treatment program. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 40(6), 369-373.

For more information on the methods
used please see our Technical Documentation.