|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$826||Benefits minus costs||$1,377|
|Participants||$47||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.33|
|Others||$712||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$206||benefits greater than the costs||100 %|
|Net program cost||($413)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,377|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Health care associated with hospital readmissions||$826||$47||$712||$413||$1,997|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($207)||($207)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$413||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2015 dollars)||($413)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||37 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Balaban, R.B., Weissman, J.S., Samuel, P.A., & Woolhandler, S. (2008). Redefining and redesigning hospital discharge to enhance patient care: a randomized controlled study. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(8), 1228-33.
Coleman, E.A., Parry, C., Chalmers, S., & Min, S.J. (2006). The care transitions intervention: results of a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(17), 1822-8.
Coleman, E.A., Smith, J.D., Frank, J.C., Min, S.-J., Parry, C., & Kramer, A.M. (2004). Preparing Patients and Caregivers to Participate in Care Delivered Across Settings: The Care Transitions Intervention. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52(11), 1817-1825.
Jack, B.W., Chetty, V.K., Anthony, D., Greenwald, J.L., Sanchez, G.M., Johnson, A.E., Forsythe, S.R., ... Culpepper, L. (2009). A reengineered hospital discharge program to decrease rehospitalization: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(3), 178-87.
Laramee, A.S., Levinsky, S.K., Sargent, J., Ross, R., & Callas, P. (2003). Case management in a heterogeneous congestive heart failure population: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163(7), 809-17.
Naylor, M., Brooten, D., Jones, R., Lavizzo-Mourey, R., Mezey, M., & Pauly, M. (1994). Comprehensive discharge planning for the hospitalized elderlya randomized clinical trial. Annals of internal Medicine, 120(12), 999-1006.
Naylor, M.D., Brooten, D.A., Campbell, R.L., Maislin, G., McCauley, K.M., & Schwartz, J.S. (2004). Transitional Care of Older Adults Hospitalized with Heart Failure: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52(5), 675-684.
Parry, C., Min, S.J., Chugh, A., Chalmers, S., & Coleman, E.A. (2009). Further application of the care transitions intervention: results of a randomized controlled trial conducted in a fee-for-service setting. Home Health Care Services Quarterly, 28, 2-3.
Rich, M.W., Vinson, J.M., Sperry, J.C., Shah, A.S., Spinner, L.R., Chung, M.K., & Davila-Roman, V. (1993). Prevention of readmission in elderly patients with congestive heart failure: results of a prospective, randomized pilot study. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 8(11), 585-90.
Rich, M.W., Beckham, V., Wittenberg, C., Leven, C.L., Freedland, K.E., & Carney, R.M. (1995). A Multidisciplinary Intervention to Prevent the Readmission of Elderly Patients with Congestive Heart Failure. New England Journal of Medicine, 333(18), 1190-1195.