|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$11||Benefits minus costs||($144)|
|Participants||$1||Benefit to cost ratio||($0.24)|
|Others||$12||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($52)||benefits greater than the costs||41 %|
|Net program cost||($116)|
|Benefits minus cost||($144)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|K-12 grade repetition||$3||$0||$0||$1||$4|
|Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$3||$6||$0||$2||$10|
|Health care associated with major depression||$12||$4||$14||$6||$35|
|Costs of higher education||($6)||($8)||($3)||($3)||($19)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($58)||($58)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$114||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($116)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Major depressive disorder||4||292||-0.201||0.125||18||0.000||0.019||19||-0.313||0.015|
Rohde, P., Stice, E., Shaw, H., & Gau, J.M. (2014). Cognitive-behavioral group depression prevention compared to bibliotherapy and brochure control: nonsignificant effects in pilot effectiveness trial with college students. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 55, 48-53.
Rohde, P., Stice, E., Shaw, H., & Gau, J.M. (2014). Effectiveness trial of an indicated cognitive-behavioral group adolescent depression prevention program versus bibliotherapy and brochure control at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Unpublished Manuscript.
Stice, E., Burton, E., Bearman, S.K., & Rohde, P. (2006). Randomized trial of a brief depression prevention program: An elusive search for a psychosocial placebo control condition. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(5), 863-876.
Stice, E., Rohde, P., Gau, J.M., & Wade, E. (2010). Efficacy trial of a brief cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for high-risk adolescents: effects at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(6), 856-67.