|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,543||Benefits minus costs||$13,558|
|Participants||$7,095||Benefit to cost ratio||$31.57|
|Others||$3,441||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($78)||benefits greater than the costs||87 %|
|Net program cost||($444)|
|Benefits minus cost||$13,558|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$3,258||$7,173||$3,185||$0||$13,616|
|K-12 grade repetition||$178||$0||$0||$89||$267|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$2||$5||$0||$7|
|Health care associated with anxiety disorder||$131||$43||$162||$66||$402|
|Costs of higher education||($82)||($123)||($37)||($41)||($282)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($221)||($221)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$115||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($444)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||2||1171||-0.185||0.058||11||-0.185||0.058||21||-0.415||0.001|
|Cannabis use before end of middle school||1||195||-0.150||0.148||15||-0.150||0.148||25||-0.348||0.026|
|Illicit drug use before end of middle school||1||976||-0.332||0.065||11||-0.332||0.065||21||-0.771||0.001|
|Initiation of sexual activity^||1||976||-0.447||0.066||11||-0.447||0.066||11||-1.039||0.001|
|K-12 grade repetition||1||5754||-0.307||0.007||11||-0.307||0.007||11||-0.307||0.001|
|Major depressive disorder||1||195||-0.060||0.206||15||0.000||0.017||16||-0.139||0.502|
|Smoking before end of middle school||2||1171||-0.163||0.059||11||-0.163||0.059||21||-0.341||0.002|
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