|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$668||Benefits minus costs||$1,151|
|Participants||$523||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.67|
|Others||$548||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$102||benefits greater than the costs||83 %|
|Net program cost||($690)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,151|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$223||$491||$225||$225||$1,165|
|K-12 grade repetition||$6||$0||$0||$3||$9|
|K-12 special education||$222||$0||$0||$111||$333|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$208||$68||$258||$105||$639|
|Costs of higher education||($24)||($36)||($11)||($12)||($83)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($346)||($346)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,520||2011||Present value of net program costs (in 2015 dollars)||($690)|
|Comparison costs||$863||2011||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||4||274||-0.271||0.090||8||-0.129||0.072||11||-0.271||0.003|
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