|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$698||Benefits minus costs||$1,234|
|Participants||$531||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.77|
|Others||$588||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$115||benefits greater than the costs||84 %|
|Net program cost||($698)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,234|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$226||$497||$228||$228||$1,180|
|K-12 grade repetition||$6||$0||$0||$3||$8|
|K-12 special education||$233||$0||$0||$117||$350|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$215||$70||$266||$108||$658|
|Costs of higher education||($24)||($37)||($11)||($12)||($84)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($350)||($350)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,520||2011||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($698)|
|Comparison costs||$863||2011||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||4||274||-0.271||0.090||8||-0.129||0.072||11||-0.271||0.003|
Bank, L., Marlowe, J.H., Reid, J.B., Patterson, G.R., & Weinrott, M.R. (1991). A comparative evaluation of parent-training interventions for families of chronic delinquents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19(1), 15-33.
Bjørknes, R., & Manger, T. (2013). Can parent training alter parent practice and reduce conduct problems in ethnic minority children? A randomized controlled trial. Prevention, 14(1), 52-63.
Kjøbli, J., & Ogden, T. (2012). A randomized effectiveness trial of brief parent training in primary care settings. Prevention Science, 13(6), 616-26.
Kjøbli, J., Hukkelberg, S., & Ogden, T. (2013). A randomized trial of group parent training: reducing child conduct problems in real-world settings. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51(3), 113-21.
Ogden, T. & Hagen, K.A. (2008). Treatment effectiveness of Parent Management Training in Norway: a randomized controlled trial of children with conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(4), 607-21.