|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$69||Benefits minus costs||($460)|
|Participants||$40||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.11|
|Others||$70||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($123)||benefits greater than the costs||37 %|
|Net program cost||($516)|
|Benefits minus cost||($460)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|K-12 grade repetition||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|K-12 special education||$3||$0||$0||$1||$4|
|Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$10||$22||$0||$105||$136|
|Health care associated with major depression||$56||$18||$69||$28||$172|
|Costs of higher education||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($258)||($258)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,207||2010||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($516)|
|Comparison costs||$733||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||5||293||-0.015||0.093||17||0.000||0.008||18||-0.039||0.698|
|Major depressive disorder||11||426||-0.278||0.088||16||0.000||0.024||17||-0.595||0.001|
|Primary care visits^||1||41||-0.086||0.214||16||0.000||0.019||17||-0.135||0.529|
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