|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,487||Benefits minus costs||$3,554|
|Participants||$2,960||Benefit to cost ratio||$5.55|
|Others||$200||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($311)||benefits greater than the costs||98 %|
|Net program cost||($782)|
|Benefits minus cost||$3,554|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|K-12 grade repetition||$6||$0||$0||$3||$9|
|Labor market earnings associated with anxiety disorder||$1,327||$2,922||$0||$0||$4,249|
|Health care associated with anxiety disorder||$165||$54||$205||$83||$507|
|Costs of higher education||($11)||($16)||($5)||($6)||($38)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($391)||($391)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,661||2010||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($782)|
|Comparison costs||$943||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Major depressive disorder^^||1||41||-0.202||0.227||11||0.000||0.025||12||-0.482||0.036|
Barrett, P.M., Dadds, M.R., & Rapee, R.M. (1996). Family treatment of childhood anxiety: A controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(2), 333-342.
Flannery-Schroeder, E.D., & Kendall, P.C. (2000). Group and individual cognitive-behavioral treatments for youth with anxiety disorders: A randomized clinical trial. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24(3), 251-278.
Kendall, P.C., Flannery-Schroeder, E., Panichelli-Mindel, S.M., Southam-Gerow, H., Henin, A., & Warman, M. (1997). Therapy for youths with anxiety disorders: A second randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(3), 366-380.
Kendall, P.C., Hudson, J.L., Gosch, E., Flannery-Schroeder, E., & Suveg, C. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disordered youth: A randomized clinical trial evaluating child and family modalities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(2), 282- 297.
Kendall, P.C. (1994). Treating anxiety disorders in children: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(1), 100-110.
Manassis, K., Mendlowitz, S.L., Scapillato, D., Avery, D., Fiksenbaum, L., Freire, M., . . . Owens, M. (2002) Group and individual cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood anxiety disorders: A randomized trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(12), 1423-1430.
Nauta, M.H., Scholing, A., Emmelkamp, P.M.G., & Minderaa, R.B. (2003). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for children with anxiety disorders in a clinical setting: No additional effect of a cognitive parent training. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(11), 1270-1278.
Southam-Gerow, M.A., McLeod, B.D., Weisz, J.R., Chu, B.C., Gordis, E.B., & Connor-Smith, J.K. (2010). Does cognitive behavioral therapy for youth anxiety outperform usual care in community clinics? An initial effectiveness test. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(10), 1043-1052.
Walkup, J. T., Albano, A. M., Piacentini, J., Birmaher, B., Compton, S. N., Sherrill, J. T., . . . Kendall, P. C. (2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline, or a combination in childhood anxiety. The New England Journal of Medicine, 359(26), 2753-2766.