|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,154||Benefits minus costs||$1,704|
|Participants||$1,286||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.21|
|Others||$1,092||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($414)||benefits greater than the costs||78 %|
|Net program cost||($1,414)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,704|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$573||$1,261||$576||$0||$2,410|
|K-12 grade repetition||$8||$0||$0||$4||$11|
|K-12 special education||$238||$0||$0||$118||$356|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$343||$112||$425||$171||$1,050|
|Costs of higher education||($58)||($87)||($26)||($29)||($200)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($703)||($703)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,240||2007||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($1,414)|
|Comparison costs||$1,000||2007||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms||Primary||4||87||-0.273||0.175||6||-0.001||0.016||7||-0.720||0.001|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||Primary||10||213||-0.392||0.102||6||-0.187||0.095||9||-1.045||0.001|
Bagner, D. M., Sheinkopf, S. J., Vohr, B. R., & Lester, B. M. (2010). Parenting intervention for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature: An initial examination. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 31(3), 209-216.
Bagner, D. M. & Eyberg, S. M. (2007). Parent-child interaction therapy for disruptive behavior in children with mental retardation: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 36,418-429.
Leung, C., Tsang, S., Heung, K., & Yiu, I. (2009). Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) among Chinese families. Research on Social Work Practice, 19(3), 304-313.
Matos, M., Bauermeister, J. J., & Bernal, G. (2009). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Puerto Rican preschool children with ADHD and behavior problems: A pilot efficacy study. Family Process, 48(2), 232-252.
McCabe, K., & Yeh, M. (2009). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Mexican Americans: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38(5), 753-759.
McNeil, C. B., Capage, L. C., Bahl, A., & Blanc, H. (1999). Importance of early intervention for disruptive behavior problems: Comparison of treatment and waitlist-control groups. Early Education and Development, 10(4), 445-454.
Nixon, R. D. V. (2001). Changes in hyperactivity and temperament in behaviourally disturbed preschoolers after parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT). Behaviour Change, 18(3), 168-176.
Nixon, R. D., Sweeney, L., Erickson, D. B., & Touyz, S. W. (2003). Parent-child interaction therapy: A comparison of standard and abbreviated treatments for oppositional defiant preschoolers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(2), 251-260.
Schuhmann, E.M., Foote, R.C., Eyberg, S.M., Boggs, S.R., & Algina, J. (1998). Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Interim report of a randomized trial with short-term maintenance. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 27(1), 34-45.
Solomon, M., Ono, M., Timmer, S., & Goodlin-Jones, B. (2008). The effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for families of children on the autism spectrum. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(9), 1767-1776.