|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,154||Benefits minus costs||$1,704|
|Participants||$1,286||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.21|
|Others||$1,092||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($414)||benefits greater than the costs||78 %|
|Net program cost||($1,414)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,704|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$573||$1,261||$576||$0||$2,410|
|K-12 grade repetition||$8||$0||$0||$4||$11|
|K-12 special education||$238||$0||$0||$118||$356|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$343||$112||$425||$171||$1,050|
|Costs of higher education||($58)||($87)||($26)||($29)||($200)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($703)||($703)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,240||2007||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($1,414)|
|Comparison costs||$1,000||2007||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms||Primary||4||87||-0.273||0.175||6||-0.001||0.016||7||-0.720||0.001|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||Primary||10||213||-0.392||0.102||6||-0.187||0.095||9||-1.045||0.001|
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