|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,168||Benefits minus costs||$2,339|
|Participants||$1,255||Benefit to cost ratio||$3.36|
|Others||$1,098||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($191)||benefits greater than the costs||86 %|
|Net program cost||($992)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,339|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$555||$1,221||$559||$0||$2,335|
|K-12 grade repetition||$7||$0||$0||$4||$11|
|K-12 special education||$249||$0||$0||$125||$373|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$364||$119||$451||$182||$1,115|
|Costs of higher education||($56)||($84)||($25)||($28)||($194)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($498)||($498)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,792||2010||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($992)|
|Comparison costs||$881||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||5||150||-0.336||0.122||7||-0.160||0.093||10||-0.866||0.001|
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