|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,822||Benefits minus costs||$2,611|
|Participants||$4,293||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.38|
|Others||$3,708||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,305)||benefits greater than the costs||61 %|
|Net program cost||($6,906)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,611|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$1,556||$3,426||$1,579||$0||$6,561|
|Child abuse and neglect||$0||$1,032||$0||$0||$1,032|
|K-12 grade repetition||$29||$0||$0||$14||$44|
|K-12 special education||$476||$0||$0||$236||$712|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$343||$112||$425||$171||$1,051|
|Costs of higher education||($184)||($277)||($83)||($92)||($635)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($3,431)||($3,431)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$7,076||2008||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($6,906)|
|Comparison costs||$850||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||14||6||443||-0.311||0.127||16||-0.148||0.091||19||-0.311||0.015|
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