|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,698||Benefits minus costs||($2,988)|
|Participants||$662||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.66|
|Others||$5,853||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($3,309)||benefits greater than the costs||42 %|
|Net program cost||($8,892)|
|Benefits minus cost||($2,988)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$454||$999||$436||$0||$1,889|
|K-12 grade repetition||$2||$0||$0||$1||$3|
|K-12 special education||$20||$0||$0||$10||$30|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$36||$12||$45||$18||$111|
|Costs of higher education||($232)||($349)||($104)||($116)||($801)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($4,430)||($4,430)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$9,120||2010||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($8,892)|
|Comparison costs||$950||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms||9||453||-0.079||0.079||9||0.000||0.005||10||-0.186||0.125|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||7||362||-0.229||0.096||9||-0.109||0.068||12||-0.341||0.007|
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