|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$669||Benefits minus costs||$2,464|
|Participants||$754||Benefit to cost ratio||n/a|
|Others||$595||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$337||benefits greater than the costs||89 %|
|Net program cost||$109|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,464|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$341||$752||$345||$121||$1,559|
|K-12 grade repetition||$5||$0||$0||$2||$7|
|K-12 special education||$163||$0||$0||$81||$244|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$172||$56||$213||$85||$527|
|Costs of higher education||($36)||($54)||($17)||($18)||($123)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||$54||$54|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$778||2010||Present value of net program costs (in 2015 dollars)||$109|
|Comparison costs||$881||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||7||136||-0.186||0.139||8||-0.089||0.081||11||-0.746||0.001|
Behan, J., Fitzpatrick, C., Sharry, J., Carr, A., & Waldron, B. (2001). Evaluation of the Parenting Plus Programme. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 22(3-4), 238-256.
Coughlin, M., Sharry, J., Fitzpatrick, C., Guerin, S., & Drumm, M. (2009). A controlled clinical evaluation of the parents plus children's programme: A video-based programme for parents of children aged 6 to 11 with behavioural and developmental problems. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 14(4), 541-558.
Hamilton, S.B., & MacQuiddy, S.L. (1984). Self-administered behavioral parent training: Enhancement of treatment efficacy using a time-out signal seat. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 13(1), 61-69.
Landy, S., & Menna, R. (2006). An evaluation of a group intervention for parents with aggressive young children: Improvements in child functioning, maternal confidence, parenting knowledge and attitudes. Early Child Development and Care, 176(6), 605-620.
Luk, E.S.L., Staiger, P., Mathai, J., Field, D., & Adler, R. (1998). Comparison of treatments of persistent conduct problems in primary school children: A preliminary evaluation of a modified cognitive-behavioural approach. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 32(3), 379-386.
Sayger, T.V., Horne, A.M., Walker, J.M., & Passmore, J.L. (1988). Social learning family therapy with aggressive children: Treatment outcome and maintenance. Journal of Family Psychology, 1(3), 261-285.
Zangwill, W.M. (1983). An evaluation of a parent training program. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 5(4), 1-16.