|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,826||Benefits minus costs||$7,127|
|Participants||$4,067||Benefit to cost ratio||$20.80|
|Others||$1,800||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($205)||benefits greater than the costs||63 %|
|Net program cost||($360)|
|Benefits minus cost||$7,127|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$1,879||$4,137||$1,822||$0||$7,838|
|K-12 grade repetition||($5)||$0||$0||($3)||($8)|
|K-12 special education||$0||$0||$0||$0||($1)|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||($1)||$0||($1)||$0||($2)|
|Costs of higher education||($46)||($70)||($21)||($23)||($159)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($179)||($179)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$119||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($360)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||6||9||4149||0.033||0.026||6||0.001||0.219||9||0.029||0.281|
Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1999). Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems: II. Classroom effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(5), 648-657.
Crean, H.F., & Johnson, D.B. (2013). Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) and elementary school aged children’s aggression: Results from a cluster randomized trial. American Journal of Community Psychology, 52, 56-72.
Domitrovich, C., Cortes, R., & Greenberg, M. (2007). Improving young children's social and emotional competence: A randomized trial of the preschool 'PATHS' curriculum. Journal of Primary Prevention, 28(2), 67-91.
Greenberg, M.T., & Krusche, C.A. (1998). Preventive intervention for school-age deaf children: The PATHS curriculum. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 3(1), 49-63.
Kam, C.-M., Greenberg, M., & Kusche´, C. (2004). Sustained effects of the PATHS curriculum on the social and psychological adjustment of children in special education. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12(2), 66-78.
Little, M., Berry, V., Morpeth, L., Blower, S., Axford, N., Lehtonen, M., Tobin, K., ... Bywater, T. (2012). The impact of three evidence-based programmes delivered in public systems in Birmingham, UK. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6(2), 260-72.
Malti, T., Ribeaud, D., & Eisner, M. P. (2011). The effectiveness of two universal preventive interventions in reducing children's externalizing behavior: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40(5), 677-92.
Morris, P., Mattera, S.K., Castells, N., Bangser, M., Bierman, K., & Raver, C. (2014). Impact findings from the Head Start CARES Demonstration: National evaluation of three approaches to improving preschoolers' social and emotional competence. Executive Summary. OPRE Report 2014-44. MDRC.
Riggs, N., Greenberg, M., Kusch, C., & Pentz, M. (2006). The mediational role of neurocognition in the behavioral outcomes of a social-emotional prevention program in elementary school students: Effects of the PATHS curriculum. Prevention Science, 7(1), 91-102.
Ross, S.M., Sheard, M.K., Slavin, R., Elliot, L., Cheung, A., Hanley, P., & Tracey, L. (2011). Evaluation of the Together 4 All Programme for Schools: Final Report. York: Institute for Effective Education, The University of York.
Schonfeld, D.J., Adams, R.E., Fredstrom, B.K., Weissberg, R.P., Gilman, R., Voyce, C., Tomlin, R., ... Speese-Linehan, D. (2014). Cluster-randomized trial demonstrating impact on academic achievement of elementary social-emotional learning. School Psychology Quarterly.