|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,842||Benefits minus costs||$5,218|
|Participants||$4,326||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.39|
|Others||$2,282||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,691)||benefits greater than the costs||60 %|
|Net program cost||($1,541)|
|Benefits minus cost||$5,218|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$1,842||$4,326||$2,282||($921)||$7,529|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($770)||($770)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,518||2018||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,541)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2018||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Calhoon, M.B., Al Otaiba, S., Cihak, D., King, A., & Avalos, A. (2007). Effects of a peer-mediated program on reading skill acquisition for two-way bilingual first-grade classrooms. Learning Disability Quarterly, 30(3), 169-184.
Denton, C.A., Anthony, J. L., Parker, R., & Hasbrouck, J. E. (2004). Effects of two tutoring programs on the English reading development of Spanish-English bilingual students. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4), 289-305.
Kemp, S.C. (2006). Teaching to Read Naturally: Examination of a fluency training program for third grade students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 67(07A), 2447A.
Vadasy, P.F., Sanders, E.A., & Nelson, J.R. (2015). Effectiveness of supplemental Kindergarten vocabulary instruction for English learners: A randomized study of immediate and longer-term effects of two approaches. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 8(4), 490-529.