|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,252||Benefits minus costs||$6,769|
|Participants||$474||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.70|
|Others||$5,389||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$1,645||benefits greater than the costs||58 %|
|Net program cost||($3,991)|
|Benefits minus cost||$6,769|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Illicit drug use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of illicit drug use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
Number of hours worked in a given time period.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$2,564||$0||$4,855||$1,282||$8,701|
|Illicit drug use disorder||Labor market earnings associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$133||$312||$0||($66)||$379|
|Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$520||$81||$534||$260||$1,395|
|Mortality associated with illicit drugs||$35||$81||$0||$2,165||$2,280|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,995)||($1,995)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$3,783||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($3,991)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Belenko, S., Foltz, C., Lang, M.A., & Sung, H.-E. (2004). Recidivism among high-risk drug felons: A longitudinal analysis following residential treatment. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 40(1/2), 105-132.
Butzin, C.A., Martin, S.S., & Inciardi, J.A. (2005). Treatment during transition from prison to community and subsequent illicit drug use. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 28(4), 351-358.
Dynia, P., & Sung, H.-E. (2000). The safety and effectiveness of diverting felony drug offenders to residential treatment as measured by recidivism. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 11(4), 299-311.
Jason, L.A., Olson, B.D., & Harvey, R. (2015). Evaluating alternative aftercare models for ex-offenders. Journal of Drug Issues, 45(1), 53-68.
Martin, S.S., Butzin, C.A., Saum, C.A., Inciardi, J.A. (1999). Three-year outcomes of therapeutic community treatment for drug-involved offenders in Delaware: From prison to work release to aftercare. The Prison Journal, 79(3), 294-320.