Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$502||Benefits minus costs||($1,681)|
|Participants||$1,067||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.24|
|Others||$660||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,691)||benefits greater than the costs||47 %|
|Net program cost||($2,219)|
|Benefits minus cost||($1,681)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Smoking tobacco on a regular basis.
Substance use disorder^
A non-specified alcohol or drug use disorder. Typically, a collection of different types of disorders reported by study authors.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (e.g., general anxiety, panic, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$559||$0||$1,276||$280||$2,115|
|Regular smoking||Labor market earnings associated with smoking||($1,979)||($4,648)||$0||$989||($5,637)|
|Health care associated with smoking||($916)||($259)||($945)||($458)||($2,577)|
|Mortality associated with smoking||($7)||($16)||$0||($304)||($327)|
|Major depressive disorder||Mortality associated with depression||$0||$0||$0||$1||$1|
|Anxiety disorder||K-12 grade repetition||$14||$0||$0||$7||$21|
|Labor market earnings associated with anxiety disorder||$2,511||$5,899||$0||($1,256)||$7,155|
|Health care associated with anxiety disorder||$319||$90||$329||$159||$897|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,109)||($1,109)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,020||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($2,219)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Morral, A.R., McCaffrey, D.F., & Ridgeway, G. (2004). Effectiveness of community-based treatment for substance-abusing adolescents: 12-month outcomes of youths entering Phoenix Academy or alternative probation dispositions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(3), 257-68.