|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,655||Benefits minus costs||$6,190|
|Participants||$328||Benefit to cost ratio||$16.24|
|Others||$2,607||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$2,006||benefits greater than the costs||61 %|
|Net program cost||($406)|
|Benefits minus cost||$6,190|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Substance use disorder^
A non-specified alcohol or drug use disorder. Typically, a collection of different types of disorders reported by study authors.
Any employment, including part-time work.
Illicit drug use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of illicit drug use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
Illicit drug use^
Adult use of illicit drugs that does not rise to the level of “disordered.” When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use from this outcome.
Violations of the conditions of an individual’s terms of probation, parole, or supervision.
Nonspecified substance use (i.e., alcohol, cannabis, or illicit drugs) that does not rise to the level of "disordered."
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$1,185||$0||$2,244||$592||$4,021|
|Illicit drug use disorder||Labor market earnings associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$93||$219||$0||($47)||$265|
|Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$354||$55||$364||$177||$950|
|Mortality associated with illicit drugs||$23||$55||$0||$1,486||$1,564|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($203)||($203)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$4,738||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($406)|
|Comparison costs||$4,353||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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