Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$8,464||Benefits minus costs||$8,197|
|Participants||$1,938||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.55|
|Others||$16,224||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($3,635)||benefits greater than the costs||59 %|
|Net program cost||($14,794)|
|Benefits minus cost||$8,197|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Arrests, charges, convictions, or incarcerations for a sex offense.
Externalizing behavior symptoms^^
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Alcohol use before end of high school
Any use of alcohol by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
Cannabis use before end of high school
Any use of cannabis by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
The removal of a child from parental care, most often to foster care.
Grade point average^
Non-standardized measure of student performance calculated across subjects.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$7,699||$0||$15,052||$3,849||$26,600|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$959||$2,254||$1,247||$0||$4,460|
|Costs of higher education||($212)||($321)||($96)||($106)||($735)|
|Alcohol use before end of high school||Health care associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$17||$3||$19||$8||$47|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$2||$3||$0||$5|
|Mortality associated with alcohol||$1||$1||$0||$10||$12|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($7,397)||($7,397)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$14,043||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($14,794)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Borduin, C.M., Schaeffer, C.M., & Heiblum, N. (2009). A randomized clinical trial of multisystemic therapy with juvenile sexual offenders: Effects on youth social ecology and criminal activity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77 (1), 26-37.
Letourneau, E.J., Henggeler, S.W., Borduin, C.M., Schewe, P.A., McCart, M.R., Chapman, J.E., & Saldana, L. (2009). Multisystemic therapy for juvenile sexual offenders: 1-year results from a randomized effectiveness trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 23 (1), 89-102.
Letourneau, E.J., Henggeler, S.W., McCart, M.R., Borduin, C.M., Schewe, P.A., & Armstrong, K.S. (2013). Two-year follow-up of a randomized effectiveness trial evaluating MST for juveniles who sexually offend. Journal of Family Psychology, 27 (6), 978-985.