|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$4,199||Benefits minus costs||$10,641|
|Participants||$9,143||Benefit to cost ratio||$13.09|
|Others||$360||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,181)||benefits greater than the costs||91 %|
|Net program cost||($880)|
|Benefits minus cost||$10,641|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any employment, including part-time work.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (e.g., general anxiety, panic, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Hospital admission, for any reason.
Emergency department visits
Whether someone visited the emergency department, or the number of times they visited the emergency department.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Major depressive disorder||Mortality associated with depression||$0||$1||$0||$10||$10|
|Anxiety disorder||Labor market earnings associated with anxiety disorder||$3,850||$9,044||$0||($1,925)||$10,969|
|Health care associated with anxiety disorder||$349||$99||$360||$174||$981|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($440)||($440)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$834||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($880)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Craske, M.G., Stein, M.B., Sullivan, G., Sherbourne, C., Bystritsky, A., Rose, R.D., . . . Roy-Byrne, P. (2011). Disorder-specific impact of coordinated anxiety learning and management treatment for anxiety disorders in primary care. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(4), 378-88.
Muntingh, A., van der Feltz-Cornelis, C., van Marwijk, H., Spinhoven, P., Assendelft, W., de Waal, M., Ader. A., van Balkom, A. (2014). Effectiveness of collaborative stepped care for anxiety disorders in primary care: a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83(1), 37-44.
Price, D., Beck, A., Nimmer, C., & Bensen, S. (2000). The treatment of anxiety disorders in a primary care HMO setting. The Psychiatric Quarterly, 71(1), 31-45.
Rollman, B.L., Belnap, B.H., Mazumdar, S., Houck, P.R., Zhu, F., Gardner, W., . . . Shear, M.K. (2005). A randomized trial to improve the quality of treatment for panic and generalized anxiety disorders in primary care. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(12), 1332-1341.