|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,518||Benefits minus costs||$11,547|
|Participants||$8,264||Benefit to cost ratio||$7.11|
|Others||$4,359||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,704)||benefits greater than the costs||81 %|
|Net program cost||($1,890)|
|Benefits minus cost||$11,547|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$3,518||$8,264||$4,359||($1,759)||$14,382|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($945)||($945)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$887||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,890)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Northwest Evaluation Association. (2010). Project Lead the Way - Initial Program Evaluation. Portland, OR.
Rethwisch, D.G., Haynes, M.C., Starobin, S.S., Laanan, F.S., & Schenk, J.T. (2012). Proceedings from Asee Annual Conference and Exposition. A study of the impact of Project Lead the Way on achievement outcomes in Iowa. San Antonio, TX.
Tran, N.A., & Nathan, M.J. (2010). Pre-college engineering studies: An investigation of the relationship between pre-college engineering studies and student achievement in science and mathematics. Journal of Engineering Education, 99(2): 143- 157.
Van Overschelde, J.P. (2013). Project lead the way students more prepared for higher education. San Marcos, TX: Texas State University.