|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,622||Benefits minus costs||($19,967)|
|Participants||$3,174||Benefit to cost ratio||($0.23)|
|Others||$197||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($8,674)||benefits greater than the costs||0 %|
|Net program cost||($16,286)|
|Benefits minus cost||($19,967)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Alcohol use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of alcohol use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Any employment, including part-time work.
Illicit drug use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of illicit drug use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
Hospital admission, for any reason.
Admission to a psychiatric ward or hospital.
A lack of stable housing, often measured through self-report of conditions like living on streets or in shelters in a given time period.
Emergency department visits
Whether someone visited the emergency department, or the number of times they visited the emergency department.
Primary care visits^
Visit to a primary care physician for any reason.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$0||$0||$1||$0||$1|
|Alcohol use disorder||Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Mortality associated with alcohol||$0||$0||$0||$1||$2|
|Employment||Labor market earnings||$1,343||$3,156||$0||($672)||$3,827|
|Illicit drug use disorder||Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||($4)||($1)||($4)||($2)||($9)|
|Mortality associated with illicit drugs||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Hospitalization||Health care associated with general hospitalization||$103||$4||$101||$51||$260|
|Hospitalization (psychiatric)||Health care associated with psychiatric hospitalization||$133||$2||$30||$67||$232|
|Emergency department visits||Health care associated with emergency department visits||$46||$13||$68||$23||$150|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($8,143)||($8,143)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$13,950||2009||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($16,286)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2009||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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