Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||($430)||Benefits minus costs||($4,213)|
|Participants||($85)||Benefit to cost ratio||($1.49)|
|Others||($992)||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,018)||benefits greater than the costs||24 %|
|Net program cost||($1,689)|
|Benefits minus cost||($4,213)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||($398)||$0||($941)||($199)||($1,538)|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||($42)||($99)||($55)||$21||($174)|
|Costs of higher education||$9||$14||$4||$5||$33|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($845)||($845)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,601||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,689)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Barnoski, R. (2004). Outcome evaluation of Washington State's research-based programs for juvenile offenders (Document No. 04-01-1201). Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.
Goldstein, A.P., Glick, B., Irwin, M.J., Pask-McCartney, C., & Rubama, I. (1989). Reducing delinquency: Intervention in the community. New York: Pergamon Press.
Knoth, L., Wanner, P., & He, L. (2019). Washington State’s Aggression Replacement Training for juvenile court youth: Outcome evaluation. (Document Number 19-06-1201). Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.