|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$494||Benefits minus costs||$1,894|
|Participants||$1,160||Benefit to cost ratio||$23.69|
|Others||$612||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($289)||benefits greater than the costs||56 %|
|Net program cost||($83)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,894|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$494||$1,160||$612||($247)||$2,019|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($42)||($42)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$77||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($83)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Kim, J.S. (2007). The effects of a voluntary summer reading intervention on reading activities and reading achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 505-515.
Kim, J.S., & White, T.G. (2008). Scaffolding voluntary summer reading for children in grades 3 to 5: An experimental study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 12(1), 1-23.
Wilkins, C., Gersten, R., Decker, L. E., Grunden, L., Brasiel, S., Brunnert, K., & Jayanthi, M. (2012). Does a Summer Reading Program Based on Lexiles Affect Reading Comprehension? Final Report (NCEE 2012-4006). Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.