Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$6,494||Benefits minus costs||$19,564|
|Participants||$0||Benefit to cost ratio||$8.14|
|Others||$13,933||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$1,877||benefits greater than the costs||85 %|
|Net program cost||($2,740)|
|Benefits minus cost||$19,564|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$6,494||$0||$13,933||$3,247||$23,674|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,370)||($1,370)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,597||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($2,740)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Lane, J., Turner, S., Fain, T., & Sehgal, A. (2007). The effects of an experimental intensive juvenile probation program on self-reported delinquency and drug use. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 3 (3), 201-219.
Lynch, M., Esthappan, S., Astone, N.M., Collazos, J., & Lipman, M. (2018). Archest Transformative Mentoring Program: An Implementation and Impact Evaluation in New York City. Washington D.C. Urban Institute.
Moore, R.H. (1987). Effectiveness of citizen volunteers functioning as counselors for high-risk young male offenders. Psychological Reports, 61, 823-830.