|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,161||Benefits minus costs||$10,128|
|Participants||$7,051||Benefit to cost ratio||$7.04|
|Others||$3,817||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,224)||benefits greater than the costs||53 %|
|Net program cost||($1,677)|
|Benefits minus cost||$10,128|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
High school graduation
On-time completion of high school with a diploma (excluding GED attainment).
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Social and emotional development^
A broad range of skills relevant to self, emotion, and relationships. These skills are typically measured through validated assessments that measure self-awareness, social competence, and self-control.
Leaves school for any reason before completing school with a high school diploma.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|High school graduation||Criminal justice system||($3)||$0||($6)||($1)||($10)|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||($225)||($529)||($289)||$113||($931)|
|Costs of higher education||$36||$54||$16||$18||$125|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$3,191||$7,495||$3,954||($1,595)||$13,045|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||K-12 special education||$37||$0||$0||$18||$55|
|Internalizing symptoms||K-12 grade repetition||$4||$0||$0||$2||$7|
|Health care associated with internalizing symptoms||$107||$30||$111||$54||$302|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($832)||($787)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$570||2018||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,677)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2018||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Cheney, D.A., Stage, S.A., Hawken, L.S., Lynass, L., Mielenz, C., & Waugh, M. (2009). A 2-year outcome study of the Check, Connect, and Expect intervention for students at risk for severe behavior problems. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 17(4), 226-243.
Heppen, J.B., Zeiser, K., Holtzman, D.J., O'Cummings, M., Christenson, S., & Pohl, A. (2018). Efficacy of the Check & Connect Mentoring Program for At-Risk General Education High School Students. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 11(1), 56-82.
Simonsen, B., Myers, D., & Briere, D. (2010). Comparing a behavioral Check-In/Check-Out (CICO) intervention to standard practice in an urban middle school setting using an experimental group design. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 13(1), 31-48.