|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||($129)||Benefits minus costs||($1,477)|
|Participants||($303)||Benefit to cost ratio||($1.33)|
|Others||($160)||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($252)||benefits greater than the costs||47 %|
|Net program cost||($633)|
|Benefits minus cost||($1,477)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms^^
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms^^
Clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Social and emotional development^
A broad range of skills relevant to self, emotion, and relationships. These skills are typically measured through validated assessments that measure self-awareness, social competence, and self-control.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||($129)||($303)||($160)||$65||($528)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($316)||($316)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$500||2005||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($633)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2005||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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Seeley, J., Small, J., Walker, H., Feil, E., Severson, H., Golly, A., & Forness, S. (2009). Efficacy of the First Step to Success intervention for students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. School Mental Health, 1(1), 37-48.
Sumi, W.C., Woodbridge, M.W., Javitz, H.S., Thornton, S.P., Wagner, M., Rouspil, . . . & Severson, H.H. (2013). Assessing the effectiveness of First Step to Success: Are short-term results the first step to long-term behavioral improvements?. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 21(1), 66-78.
Walker, H.M., Kavanagh, K., Stiller, B., Golly, A., Severson, H.H., & Feil, E.D. (1998). First step to success: An early intervention approach for preventing school antisocial behavior. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 6(2), 66-80.
Woodbridge, M.W., Sumi, W.C., Wagner, M.M., Javitz, H.S., Seeley, J.R., Walker, H.M., . . . Severson, H.H. (2014). Does First Step to Success have long-term impacts on student behavior? An analysis of efficacy trial data. School Psychology Review, 43(3), 299-317.