|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,865||Benefits minus costs||$5,278|
|Participants||$2,196||Benefit to cost ratio||$8.62|
|Others||$2,251||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($341)||benefits greater than the costs||60 %|
|Net program cost||($693)|
|Benefits minus cost||$5,278|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$654||$0||$1,484||$327||$2,465|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||K-12 special education||$50||$0||$0||$25||$75|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$121||$34||$125||$61||$342|
|Internalizing symptoms||Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||($6)||($13)||($7)||$3||($24)|
|K-12 grade repetition||($1)||$0||$0||$0||($1)|
|Health care associated with internalizing symptoms||($17)||($5)||($18)||($9)||($48)|
|Costs of higher education||$1||$1||$0||$0||$3|
|From secondary participant|
|Major depressive disorder||Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$547||$1,284||$0||($273)||$1,558|
|Health care associated with major depression||$178||$50||$184||$89||$501|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$1||$0||$13||$14|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($577)||$1,086|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$619||2011||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($693)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2011||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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