|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$67||Benefits minus costs||($678)|
|Participants||($885)||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.11|
|Others||$889||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$14||benefits greater than the costs||48 %|
|Net program cost||($763)|
|Benefits minus cost||($678)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Problem alcohol use
Alcohol use reflecting problem behaviors (e.g., high frequency drinking, binge drinking, or drinking that has a high impact on daily life) for individuals who do not have an alcohol use disorder.
Adult use of cannabis that does not rise to the level of “disordered.”
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Illicit drug use before end of high school
Any use of illicit drugs by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 to 18. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
Adult use of alcohol that does not rise to the level of “problem” or “disordered.”
Nonspecified substance use (i.e., alcohol, cannabis, or illicit drugs) that does not rise to the level of "disordered."
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$368||$0||$842||$184||$1,394|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||K-12 special education||$30||$0||$0||$15||$46|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$82||$23||$84||$41||$230|
|Problem alcohol use||Labor market earnings associated with problem alcohol use||($382)||($897)||$0||$191||($1,088)|
|Property loss associated with problem alcohol use||$0||($2)||($5)||$0||($7)|
|Health care associated with problem alcohol use||($30)||($5)||($33)||($15)||($83)|
|Mortality associated with problem alcohol||($1)||($3)||$0||($20)||($24)|
|Internalizing symptoms||K-12 grade repetition||$1||$0||$0||$0||$1|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($382)||($382)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$817||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($763)|
|Comparison costs||$101||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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Sandler, I., Gunn, H., Mazza, G., Tein, J.Y., Wolchik, S., Berkel, C., . . . Porter, M. (2018). Effects of a program to promote high quality parenting by divorced and separated fathers. Prevention Science, 19(4), 538-548.
Wolchik, S.A., Sandler, I.N., Millsap, R.E., Plummer, B.A., Greene, S.M., Anderson, E.R., . . . Weiss, L., (2002). Six-year follow-up of preventive interventions for children of divorce: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 288 (15), 1874-81.
Wolchik, S.A., Sandler, I.N., Tein, J.-Y., Mahrer, N.E., Millsap, R.E., Winslow, . . . Reed, A. (2013). Fifteen-year follow-up of a randomized trial of a preventive intervention for divorced families: Effects on mental health and substance use outcomes in young adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81(4), 660-73.
Wolchik, S.A., West, S.G., Sandler, I.N., Tein, J.Y., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., . . . Griffin, W.A. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother–child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 843.