|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,690||Benefits minus costs||($1,422)|
|Participants||$10,512||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.84|
|Others||$615||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($6,294)||benefits greater than the costs||47 %|
|Net program cost||($8,946)|
|Benefits minus cost||($1,422)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
High school graduation^^
On-time completion of high school with a diploma (excluding GED attainment).
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
Child abuse and neglect
Substantiated or founded reports to child protective services.
K-12 grade repetition
Repeating a grade. This is sometimes called "grade retention."
K-12 special education
Placement into special education services.
The removal of a child from parental care, most often to foster care.
Smoking tobacco on a regular basis.
Any form of welfare assistance, such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) or Assistance for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC).
Any employment, including part-time work.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Adult use of cannabis that does not rise to the level of “disordered.”
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Emergency department visits
Whether someone visited the emergency department, or the number of times they visited the emergency department.
Receipt of food assistance, such as from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).
Preschool test scores^
Measures of cognition in young children on standardized scales.
|1||Secondary||6||625||0.034||0.057||3||n/a||n/a||n/a||0.053||0.349||Click to expand||Click to collapse|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Regular smoking||Health care associated with smoking||$509||$144||$526||$255||$1,434|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$1||$4||$0||$229||$234|
|Public assistance||Public assistance||($618)||$226||$0||($309)||($702)|
|Employment||Labor market earnings||$381||$894||$0||($190)||$1,085|
|Food assistance||Food assistance||($367)||$324||$0||($183)||($225)|
|From secondary participant|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||($325)||($764)||($403)||$163||($1,329)|
|Child abuse and neglect||Child abuse and neglect||$158||$1,762||$0||$79||$1,999|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$1||$0||$1|
|Labor market earnings associated with child abuse & neglect||$3,381||$7,942||$0||($1,691)||$9,633|
|Mortality associated with child abuse and neglect||$2||$5||$0||$44||$51|
|K-12 grade repetition||K-12 grade repetition||($70)||$0||$0||($35)||($105)|
|K-12 special education||K-12 special education||($660)||$0||$0||($330)||($991)|
|Out-of-home placement||Out-of-home placement||$73||$0||$0||$37||$110|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Criminal justice system||($11)||$0||($22)||($6)||($38)|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||($93)||($26)||($96)||($47)||($262)|
|Internalizing symptoms||Health care associated with internalizing symptoms||$3||$1||$3||$2||$9|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($4,310)||($3,379)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$5,293||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($8,946)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||70 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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