|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$595||Benefits minus costs||$530|
|Participants||$951||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.70|
|Others||$206||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($461)||benefits greater than the costs||55 %|
|Net program cost||($760)|
|Benefits minus cost||$530|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Alcohol use before end of middle school
Any use of alcohol by the end of middle school, typically by age 13.
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Alcohol use before end of high school
Any use of alcohol by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||Criminal justice system||$25||$0||$58||$12||$96|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||K-12 grade repetition||$2||$0||$0||$1||$4|
|K-12 special education||$40||$0||$0||$20||$60|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$118||$33||$121||$59||$331|
|Alcohol use before end of high school||Labor market earnings associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$315||$740||$0||($158)||$898|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$1||$2||$0||$3|
|Mortality associated with alcohol||$0||$1||$0||$7||$8|
|From secondary participant|
|Major depressive disorder||Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$72||$168||$0||($36)||$204|
|Health care associated with major depression||$23||$7||$24||$12||$65|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$0||$0||$2||$2|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($380)||($380)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$713||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($760)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Beach, S.R., Kogan, S.M., Brody, G.H., Chen, Y.F., Lei, M.K., & Murry, V.M. (2008). Change in caregiver depression as a function of the Strong African American Families Program. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(2), 241-52.
Brody, G.H., Kogan, S.M., Chen, Y.F., & Murry, V.M. (2008). Long-term effects of the Strong African American Families program on youths' conduct problems. Journal of Adolescent Health, 43(5), 474-481.
Brody, G.H., Chen, Y.F., Kogan, S.M., Murry, V.M., & Brown, A.C. (2010). Long-term effects of the Strong African American Families program on youths' alcohol use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2) 281-5.