|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,549||Benefits minus costs||$3,968|
|Participants||$4,167||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.00|
|Others||$3,861||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,649)||benefits greater than the costs||55 %|
|Net program cost||($3,960)|
|Benefits minus cost||$3,968|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
High school graduation
On-time completion of high school with a diploma (excluding GED attainment).
K-12 grade repetition
Repeating a grade. This is sometimes called "grade retention."
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Teen pregnancy (under age 18)^
Becoming pregnant (or getting someone else pregnant) before age 18.
Initiation of sexual activity^
Self-reported sexual intercourse.
Teen births under age 18
Becoming a parent before age 18.
Teen births (second generation)
Being the child of a mother aged younger than 18 at birth.
Alcohol use before end of high school
Any use of alcohol by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
Smoking before end of high school
Any smoking of tobacco by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
In-school suspensions, out-of-school suspensions, or expulsions from school
|6||Primary||1||149||-0.079||0.227||18||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.207||0.366||Click to expand||Click to collapse|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$628||$0||$1,361||$314||$2,303|
|High school graduation||Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$1,945||$4,568||$2,493||($972)||$8,034|
|Costs of higher education||($297)||($449)||($135)||($148)||($1,030)|
|K-12 grade repetition||K-12 grade repetition||$135||$0||$0||$68||$203|
|Major depressive disorder||Health care associated with major depression||$131||$37||$135||$65||$368|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$1||$0||$7||$8|
|Teen births under age 18||Public assistance||$2||($1)||$0||$1||$3|
|Alcohol use before end of high school||Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$0||$0||$1|
|From secondary participant|
|Teen births (second generation)||Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$5||$12||$6||($2)||$21|
|K-12 grade repetition||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Health care associated with smoking||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Costs of higher education||($1)||($1)||$0||$0||($3)|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,980)||($1,980)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$499||1999||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($3,960)|
|Comparison costs||$0||1999||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Hawkins, J.D., Catalano, R.F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R., & Hill, K.G. (1999). Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 153(3), 226-234.
Hawkins, J.D., Kosterman, R., Catalano, R.F., Hill, K.G., & Abbott, R.D. (2005). Promoting positive adult functioning through social development intervention in childhood: Long-term effects from the Seattle Social Development Project. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159(1), 25-31.