|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$229||Benefits minus costs||($2,675)|
|Participants||$131||Benefit to cost ratio||($0.21)|
|Others||$223||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,040)||benefits greater than the costs||0 %|
|Net program cost||($2,217)|
|Benefits minus cost||($2,675)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Number or percentage of school days present in a given enrollment period.
Office discipline referrals^
Referrals of a student to an administrative office for disciplinary reasons.
Nonspecified substance use (i.e., alcohol, cannabis, or illicit drugs) that does not rise to the level of "disordered."
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Criminal justice system||$19||$0||$49||$10||$78|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$46||$108||$59||($23)||$190|
|K-12 special education||$61||$0||$0||$30||$91|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$114||$32||$117||$57||$320|
|Costs of higher education||($11)||($9)||($3)||($6)||($29)|
|Internalizing symptoms||K-12 grade repetition||$1||$0||$0||$0||$1|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,108)||($1,108)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,101||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($2,217)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Herrera, C., Grossman, J.B., Kauh, T.J., & McMaken, J. (2011). Mentoring in schools: An impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters school-based mentoring. Child Development, 82(1), 346-361.