|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$49||Benefits minus costs||$43|
|Participants||$6||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.31|
|Others||$8||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$119||benefits greater than the costs||63 %|
|Net program cost||($139)|
|Benefits minus cost||$43|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
An event which results in a person coming to rest inadvertently on the ground or floor or other lower level.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Falls||Health care associated with falls||$49||$6||$8||$25||$88|
|Mortality associated with falls||$0||$0||$0||$164||$164|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($70)||($70)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$132||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($139)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||50 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Cerny, K., Blanks, R., Mohamed, O., Schwab, D., Robinson, B., Russo, A., & Zizz, C. (1998). The effect of a multidimensional exercise program on strength, range of motion, balance and gait in the well elderly. Gait & Posture, 7(2), 185-186.
Fitzharris, M.P., Day, L., Fildes, B., Lord, S.R., & Gordon, I. (2010). The Whitehorse NoFalls trial: Effects on fall rates and injurious fall rates. Age and Ageing, 39(6), 728-733.
Freiberger, E., Menz, H.B., Abu-Omar, K., & Rütten, A. (2007). Preventing falls in physically active community-dwelling older people: A comparison of two intervention techniques. Gerontology, 53(5), 298-305.
Woo, J., Hong, A., Lau, E., & Lynn, H. (2007). A randomised controlled trial of Tai Chi and resistance exercise on bone health, muscle strength and balance in community-living elderly people. Age and Ageing, 36(3), 262-268.