|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,752||Benefits minus costs||$9,143|
|Participants||$3,581||Benefit to cost ratio||$57.90|
|Others||$3,132||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($161)||benefits greater than the costs||78 %|
|Net program cost||($161)|
|Benefits minus cost||$9,143|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
High school graduation
On-time completion of high school with a diploma (excluding GED attainment).
Smoking before end of middle school
Any smoking of tobacco by the end of middle school, typically by age 13.
Smoking tobacco on a regular basis.
Alcohol use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of alcohol use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Illicit drug use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of illicit drug use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
Clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (e.g., general anxiety, panic, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
An attempt to die by suicide resulting in survival.
Antisocial personality disorder^
Clinical diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Smoking before end of high school
Any smoking of tobacco by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
Thinking about and/or planning death by suicide.
|7||1||178||-0.159||0.151||20||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.420||0.015||Click to expand||Click to collapse|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|High school graduation||Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$1,562||$3,669||$2,003||($781)||$6,453|
|Costs of higher education||($240)||($364)||($109)||($120)||($834)|
|Regular smoking||Mortality associated with smoking||$3||$6||$0||$107||$116|
|Alcohol use disorder||Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$4||$8||$0||$13|
|Anxiety disorder||K-12 grade repetition||$3||$0||$0||$1||$4|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Criminal justice system||$116||$0||$262||$58||$435|
|K-12 special education||$371||$0||$0||$185||$556|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$938||$265||$968||$469||$2,639|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($80)||($80)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$73||2011||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($161)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2011||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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