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Washington State Institute for Public Policy
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Promoting First Relationships

Child Welfare
Benefit-cost methods last updated December 2023.  Literature review updated June 2021.
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Promoting First Relationships is a 10-week home visiting program for toddlers and their caregivers who are experiencing adversity. In the studies included here, children were either dependents of the state or alleged victims of child maltreatment. The program aims to strengthen the relationship between parent and child, thereby increasing the child’s sense of safety and security. Home visitor therapists focus on increasing sensitive parenting behaviors using consultation and video feedback to observe and support child-caregiver interactions. In the studies used in this analysis, participating families received an average of 9.5 visits.
For an overview of WSIPP's Benefit-Cost Model, please see this guide. The estimates shown are present value, life cycle benefits and costs. All dollars are expressed in the base year chosen for this analysis (2022). The chance the benefits exceed the costs are derived from a Monte Carlo risk analysis. The details on this, as well as the economic discount rates and other relevant parameters are described in our Technical Documentation.
Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant
Benefits to:
Taxpayers $897 Benefits minus costs ($549)
Participants $423 Benefit to cost ratio $0.64
Others $35 Chance the program will produce
Indirect ($362) benefits greater than the costs 47%
Total benefits $993
Net program cost ($1,542)
Benefits minus cost ($549)

^WSIPP’s benefit-cost model does not monetize this outcome.

Meta-analysis is a statistical method to combine the results from separate studies on a program, policy, or topic in order to estimate its effect on an outcome. WSIPP systematically evaluates all credible evaluations we can locate on each topic. The outcomes measured are the types of program impacts that were measured in the research literature (for example, crime or educational attainment). Treatment N represents the total number of individuals or units in the treatment group across the included studies.

An effect size (ES) is a standard metric that summarizes the degree to which a program or policy affects a measured outcome. If the effect size is positive, the outcome increases. If the effect size is negative, the outcome decreases. See Estimating Program Effects Using Effect Sizes for additional information.

Adjusted effect sizes are used to calculate the benefits from our benefit cost model. WSIPP may adjust effect sizes based on methodological characteristics of the study. For example, we may adjust effect sizes when a study has a weak research design or when the program developer is involved in the research. The magnitude of these adjustments varies depending on the topic area.

WSIPP may also adjust the second ES measurement. Research shows the magnitude of some effect sizes decrease over time. For those effect sizes, we estimate outcome-based adjustments which we apply between the first time ES is estimated and the second time ES is estimated. We also report the unadjusted effect size to show the effect sizes before any adjustments have been made. More details about these adjustments can be found in our Technical Documentation.

Meta-Analysis of Program Effects
Outcomes measured Treatment age Primary or secondary participant No. of effect sizes Treatment N Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)
First time ES is estimated Second time ES is estimated
ES SE Age ES SE Age ES p-value
1 Primary 1 124 -0.021 0.337 1 -0.021 0.337 17 -0.058 0.865
1 Primary 1 124 -0.124 0.341 1 -0.124 0.341 17 -0.345 0.316
1 Primary 1 105 0.057 0.260 2 n/a n/a n/a 0.158 0.583
1 Primary 1 127 -0.099 0.126 1 -0.054 0.079 4 -0.274 0.031
1 Primary 1 127 -0.039 0.126 1 -0.039 0.126 3 -0.108 0.392
1 Primary 1 124 0.065 0.256 1 n/a n/a n/a 0.182 0.478
27 Secondary 1 124 0.008 0.256 27 n/a n/a n/a 0.023 0.929
27 Secondary 1 127 0.053 0.126 27 n/a n/a n/a 0.147 0.246
1In addition to the outcomes measured in the meta-analysis table, WSIPP measures benefits and costs estimated from other outcomes associated with those reported in the evaluation literature. For example, empirical research demonstrates that high school graduation leads to reduced crime. These associated measures provide a more complete picture of the detailed costs and benefits of the program.

2“Others” includes benefits to people other than taxpayers and participants. Depending on the program, it could include reductions in crime victimization, the economic benefits from a more educated workforce, and the benefits from employer-paid health insurance.

3“Indirect benefits” includes estimates of the net changes in the value of a statistical life and net changes in the deadweight costs of taxation.
Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant
Affected outcome: Resulting benefits:1 Benefits accrue to:
Taxpayers Participants Others2 Indirect3 Total
Child abuse and neglect Criminal justice system $14 $0 $27 $7 $48
Child abuse and neglect $29 $11 $0 $15 $55
K-12 grade repetition $2 $0 $0 $1 $3
K-12 special education $54 $0 $0 $27 $82
Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Health care associated with PTSD $8 $2 $9 $4 $23
Labor market earnings associated with child abuse & neglect $171 $403 $0 $0 $574
Mortality associated with child abuse and neglect $3 $6 $0 $47 $56
Out-of-home placement Out-of-home placement $616 $0 $0 $308 $924
Program cost Adjustment for deadweight cost of program $0 $0 $0 ($771) ($771)
Totals $897 $423 $35 ($362) $993
Click here to see populations selected
Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant
Annual cost Year dollars Summary
Program costs $1,331 2017 Present value of net program costs (in 2022 dollars) ($1,542)
Comparison costs $0 2017 Cost range (+ or -) 15%
The per participant cost of the program is based on the average number of sessions per family in the included studies (9.5). We apply the reimbursement rate paid by the Department of Children, Youth, and Families ($138 per session, per fee schedule for Promoting First Relationships, and add $20 per case for fidelity monitoring.
The figures shown are estimates of the costs to implement programs in Washington. The comparison group costs reflect either no treatment or treatment as usual, depending on how effect sizes were calculated in the meta-analysis. The cost range reported above reflects potential variation or uncertainty in the cost estimate; more detail can be found in our Technical Documentation.
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)
The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Citations Used in the Meta-Analysis

Oxford, M., Hash J., Lohr, J.J., Bleil, M., Flemieng, C., Unutzer, J., & Spieker, S. (2021). Randomized trial of Promoting First Relationships for new mothers who received community mental health services in pregnancy.

Oxford, M.L., Spieker, S.J., Lohr, M.J., & Fleming, C.B. (J2016). Promoting First Relationships®: Randomized trial of a 10-week home visiting program with families referred to child protective services. Child Maltreatment, 21(4), 267-277.

Spieker, S.J., Oxford, M.L., & Fleming, C.B. (2014). Permanency outcomes for toddlers in child welfare two years after a randomized trial of a parenting intervention. Children and Youth Services Review, 44, 201-206.